“Hanging Scaffolding Works” By Bel Magar On YouTube:
I hope you are doing absolutely fabulous on your Thursday? The leaves are falling here in the grass of New York City. I wasn’t in the mood to go and peep the Village Halloween Parade that happens each year in Manhattan earlier this week. I went last year when it was on a Sunday. For some reason, I wasn’t in the mood to do it. Perhaps it was because it fell on a Monday this year and staying out late will make me tired all week. The older I get, the more I need sleep. I look at it like it is totally precious. I opted to research and craft a safety blog post on suspended scaffolds. Since I live and work amongst the skyline of high rise buildings, it makes sense to discuss the value of suspended scaffold workers. Buildings cannot be maintained without workers on the rope team as well as suspended scaffold workers. I plan to connect with my buddy Steve, who was a former Marine, who worked on the rope team and do a podcast episode as well as a blog post. In case you missed them, go into my blog post and read up on my safety topic blog posts. I have previously written on safety topics such as the dangers of silica, the history of the hard hat, and the need for safety boots. Before I dive into some research and regurgitate some talking points on suspended scaffolds, I might as well share some links and updates on my other projects. I changed my themed collection brand name from “I’m My Own $ugar Daddy” to “$ugar Momma Baddie”. I established the “$ugar Momma Baddie” themed clothing and accessory collection on both Spring and Shopify ecommerce platforms. I know I need to circle back and add more items to the catalog over time. I have two designs to choose from: 1) Feisty Lady Trio 2) Sugar Momma Bed. I’m offering the “$ugar Momma Baddie” Shopify and Spring store links down below this safety blog content. I’m also sharing the links for the paperback, e-book, and now audio version for my first children’s book that’s entitled, “Not All Girls Play With Dolls”. My first children’s book is available on Amazon, Barnes and Noble, iTunes, and Audible. The audio version of “Not All Girls Play With Dolls” can be found in four Audible markets that include: France, Dutch, U.K., and the United States. My other book #ConstructionTales can also be found on those four Audible markets as well. The links for all of them can be found down in this blog post. Now that I’ve wrapped up my “Leslie ad”, let’s get into some gritty safety details. I know you are excited to see what I’ve dug up for us. 😛
What is a suspended scaffold? A suspended scaffold is a temporary platform that is supported by non-rigid means such as: cables, chains, or ropes. It is not to be confused with supported scaffolds which are temporary platforms that are supported by rigid means such as: legs, posts, or frames. Suspended scaffolds are needed on large, multi-floor high rise buildings in order to help workers gain elevation and easily perform various maintenance tasks. Performing work at such high elevations is extremely dangerous. Under these circumstances, workers need to be protected and highly trained. New York City construction workers and visitors are protected under NY Labor Law 241. This labor law outlines the regulations and specific safety actions that must be followed on a worksite. It also gives workers the right to sue for injuries and pain and suffering caused by industrial code violations. Additionally, Labor Law 240 also protects workers from falls from elevated platforms; such as suspended scaffolding systems. New York Labor Law 200 also works to protect the rights of both workers and any visitors to the job site. These labor laws are structured to ensure that construction company owners and contractors take reasonable steps to give workers a safe working environment. These labor laws all work collectively to push employers to take necessary steps to protect workers with a series of established safety guidelines. Workers need to be protected, via using a guardrail system as well as a personal fall arrest protection system while operating the suspended scaffold. On scaffolds, toprails should be able to withstand a force of 150 pounds. Mid rails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, etc., must also withstand a force of at least 150 pounds. The top edge height of top rails on suspended scaffolds must be between 36 inches and 45 inches. Toeboards should be able to handle a force of 50 pounds. Toeboards must be at least 3½ inches high from the top edge to the level of the walking/working surface. Wire rope used in hoisting machines must be at least five-sixteenth inches in diameter and capable of supporting at least six times the intended load. All fiber ropes used for these scaffolds must be at least equivalent in strength to three-quarter-inch first-grade manila rope. Additionally, the use of repaired wire ropes, as a safety rope, is prohibited. When workers are using welding or burning equipment of any type, sandblasting equipment, or using any chemical substance, fiber or synthetic ropes shall not be used. Chemical substances may damage the rope if it is splashed or spilled on the rope. The safety ropes are one of the main components and an important part of the suspended scaffold system. Obviously, the key component of the system would be the reliable anchorage point. The anchorage points must be tested to ensure that they are fully capable of holding the designated weight for the duration of the project. As you can see in the attached photograph that I pulled from OSHA.gov, there are eight different types of suspended scaffolding. I don’t personally see any of them as reliable enough to put my life in their hands. I give much credit to the person who risks their lives daily to use a suspended scaffold while performing work. The (8) temporary means of reaching heights to get the job done include: ,
- 1) catenary-Platform supported by two essentially horizontal and parallel ropes attached to structural members of a building. Additional vertical pickups may also provide support.
- 2) interior hung- Platform suspended from the ceiling or roof structure by fixed-length supports.
- 3) multi-point adjustable- Platform(s) suspended by more than two ropes from overhead supports and equipped with a means to permit the platform to be raised and lowered. Includes chimney hoists.
- 4) single point adjustable- Platform suspended by one rope from an overhead support and equipped with a means to permit the platform to be moved to desired working levels.
- 5) float (ship)- Braced platform resting on two parallel bearers and hung from overhead supports by ropes of fixed length.
- 6) multi-level- Two-point or multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold with a series of platforms at various levels resting on common stirrups.
- 7) needle beam- A platform suspended from needle beams.
- 8) two-point (swing stage)- Platform supported by hangers (stirrups) suspended by two ropes from overhead supports and equipped with a means to permit the platform to be raised and lowered.
What is required in order to operate a suspended scaffold here in New York City? The owner of the company must have a designated rigger who holds a rigging license (special or master) that’s been issued from New York City Department of Buildings. The job requires work permits, as per what work that’s needed to be performed, as well as filing a CD-5 Suspended Scaffold Application. Of course you cannot even hold onto licenses, permits, or certificates without having insurance. The workers who get into a suspended scaffold must all sit in a 16-hour suspended scaffold class. Once it’s time to renew the suspended scaffold credentials, there is an 8-hr refresher course. As per Local Law 196, all workers must possess a 40-hour worker SST card. Once it’s time to renew the SST cards after a five year period of time, an 8-hr SST refresher course is required. For supervisors, they are required to hold a 62-hour supervisor SST card. NYC Department of Buildings inspectors can issue fines to employers who have employees onsite without SST cards. These fines could be as high as $15,000 per untrained worker. Each party could get a $5k fine that include: owner, permit holder, and employer. A fine for not holding a log of trained workers onsite could be $2,500. Workers must also have a Certificate of Fitness that has been issued by the Licensed Rigger or Licensed Sign Hanger who is in charge of overseeing the scaffold operations. The foreman on the project must complete a 32-hour suspended scaffold training course by a Department-approved provider and receive a DOB-issued ID card. After all, the foreman is the competent person on the project. The foreman is the eyes and ears on behalf of the licensed rigger. Once the necessary paperwork and training has been completed, it is also necessary to get approval for the drawings pertaining to the specific suspended scaffold equipment that will be erected as well as the work to be performed from the Department of Buildings. This approval process applies under normal conditions unless the owner files paperwork to perform work under emergency conditions. Once the drawings are approved from the Department of Buildings, it’s now time for competent people to erect the suspended scaffold exactly as per the engineered drawings. The crew will also typically start bringing tools and material onsite for the project. Platforms must be at least 18 inches wide but no more than 36 inches wide. An official pull test is required for anchorage points for the suspended scaffold- such as C-hooks, outriggers, and tie backs. Once the suspended scaffold has been erected, the qualified person must use a checklist and ensure that the equipment has been installed 100% as per the approved drawings. Each day prior to getting into that suspended scaffold, a full safety check must happen via the competent person. Once completely checked out, the competent person signs the daily checklist paperwork, shares with the site safety manager, and holds onto the paperwork. The paperwork must be fully completed and readily available in the event a DOB inspector comes onsite. Safety is the responsibility of anyone who steps into a suspended scaffold at all times.
I’m aware that working out of a suspended scaffold is very dangerous. However, I can’t find specific stats that isolate suspended scaffold worker deaths from the overall fatality rate of construction workers. I have found some recent incidents, via online news articles, where workers have died while working on the external façade of various high rise buildings throughout New York City. Let’s look at how dangerous it is to be a construction worker in general. According to the Labor of Bureau Statistics, there were 4,764 fatal work injuries recorded in the United States in 2020. The annual 2020 fatality rate experienced a 10.7% percent decrease from 5,333 in 2019. By 2020, the fatal work injury rate was 3.4 fatalities per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers. The fatality percentage rate is down from 3.5 per 100,000 (FTE) in 2019. Meanwhile, fatal work injuries totaled 59 in 2020 for New York City. Chief Regional Economist Martin Kohli noted that the number of work-related fatalities in New York City was down from the previous year. I strongly believe that this drop is due to projects being shut down as a result of Covid-19. Therefore, I believe that the available data is skewed. It gives a false impression that construction workers are safer out in the field. I worked with the tools in Westchester County for many years. I believe that New York City construction workers are subjected to tighter safety rules than surrounding towns within the tri-state area. These tighter safety rules do work to protect my fellow trade brothers and sisters. Then again, there is far more risk for workers when subjected to working on an entire iconic skyline of skyscrapers. Within New York City, fatal occupational injuries have ranged from a high of 191, back in 1993, to a low of 56 in both years 2013 and 2016. The private construction industry sector had the highest number of fatalities in New York City with 13 for 2020. This unfortunate number is down from 24 in the previous year of 2019. Some people will argue that high deaths would be attributed to the union versus non-union factor in the private sector. The reasoning behind this would be the the level of required safety training is much higher amongst the union workforce. My union alone offers a wide variety of safety training for the membership that exceeds the minimum requirements for an SST card. It is assumed that workers who are more educated move more cautiously on the jobsite. Falls, slips, and trips resulted in 5 of the industry’s 13 fatalities. The specialty trade contractors subsector accounted for 8 of the 13 fatal workplace injuries in construction. It takes a fraction of a second to fall. By the time your brain registers that a fall is happening, you can already be several feet on the ground within the remaining fraction of a second. That fact is quite powerful to ponder and absorb. Being in construction is a dangerous industry to work within. This is exactly why safety training is so important in an effort to mitigate the natural risks of this industry. In a world of milestones and deadlines, workers walk a tight rope that requires balance between being safe and getting the job done.
Now that we reviewed some various data on suspended scaffolding, let’s get a sense about how long scaffolding in general has been in use. The ancient Greeks and Egyptians were said to have created the first scaffolding in an effort to create their ancient monuments. Ancient landmarks, such as the Egyptian pyramids and the Great Wall of China, were made possible as a result of using scaffolding. By the 1800’s, bamboo scaffolding was first introduced into the building industry in Hong Kong. It appears that bamboo scaffolding is still used in parts of the world. Early scaffolding was basically made out of wood and rope knots. On the Justia Patents website, I see that there was a patent for a scaffold was submitted on March 3, 1840 by Penfield. However, I can’t really pull much further data on the invention. I find it frustrating that I can’t dig deeper into the history as I would like. Therefore, I shall do the best that I can. It appears that a very early scaffold invention, known as the Cornice Scaffold, was created by inventor Orthmann Fred, from Brooklyn, New York, with the patent being granted back on January 16, 1923. I learned that the first Boatswain’s chair was patented and released by March 7, 1946. I find a Boatswain’s chair to be rather scary in nature. Despite my love for the adrenaline rush that comes from roller coasters, I don’t think that I would like to participate in that “chair ride” at all. By 1993, inventor Lowell N. Walz received a patent for an electric light weight portable scaffolding. I see that there are quite few more patents that have been granted, over the past 30 to 40 years, for scaffold related improvements. In an effort to protect people on the ground while they are working, a controlled access zone (CAZ) must be created under the suspended scaffold that keeps both workers and bystanders protected while walking under the workers. Throughout New York City, you will see the temporary sidewalk sheds, with the required hunter green plywood, being erected on the ground level that serves as overhead protection. During my research process, I learned that the requirement for sidewalk shed came as a result of a fatality for a young college student Grace Gold after getting hit with a facade stone back in 1979. Local Law 11, or “The Facade Inspection and Safety Program”, was born out of that tragedy. This law is responsible for approximately 900,000 feet worth of sidewalk shed that’s been erected throughout the five boroughs of New York City. The average time a sidewalk shed stays erected is for roughly one year. However, there was a sidewalk shed that was recently dismantled after protecting pedestrians for 11-years. A small object that’s dropped from a high elevation has the ability to seriously harm bystanders on the ground. This is why it’s important for construction workers to tether their tools and hard hats while working on any form of scaffold. In the beginning of this project, we were often having to give workers a hard time for not tethering their tools and hard hats.
Scaffold hoists are a critically important component of the suspended scaffold. Hoists help adjust the height of the platform that allow operators to get to their work. Hoists are intended to safely lift the platform if they are used according to manufacturer’s specifications. Never allow the load of a scaffold hoist to exceed 3 times the rated load. The rated load weight is provided by the manufacturer for the specific suspended scaffold device used. When winding drum hoists are used and the scaffold is extended to its lowest point of travel, there must be enough rope to still wrap four times around the drum. When using other types of hoists, the suspension ropes must be long enough to allow the scaffold to travel to the level below without the rope end passing through the hoist or provide a way to prevent the end from passing through the hoist. Never allow gasoline-powered hoists to be used on suspension scaffolds. Gears and brakes of power-operated hoists used on suspension scaffolds must be guarded and enclosed in order to prevent a worker being sucked into the hoist via clothing. Power-operated and manual hoists must have an automatic braking device to safely support, decelerate, and stop a load during a fall. Joining wire suspension ropes is dangerous if not done properly. Only use wire ropes joined together with proper eye splice thimbles connected with shackles or cover plates and bolts. If wire rope clips are used on suspension scaffolds, there must be a minimum of three clips installed. All clips, shackles, and other devices used with wire rope must be installed according to manufacturer’s recommendations. During an inspection, I learned that the c-clamp bolts must all face the exact same direction. We got a fine despite the fact that the orientation absolutely does not having a mechanical effect from the installation. Additionally, the c-clamps must be spaced three fingers width apart. I learned that when installing the C-hooks, you have to cut away the metal façade covering and get down to connecting on the brick. The C-hooks also require three points of contact when installed on the parapet. For this project, we didn’t use outriggers. The workers installed a series of metal wires that were wrapped around at least twice around the bulkhead on the roof. They also installed safety lines that come from the bulkhead connection. The safety lines are what the workers are constantly connected to while out on the suspended scaffold. The workers are not connected to the suspended scaffold. In the event of a power failure or a problem, the motor is designed to go only in a downward direction. The rope grabs that attach a worker’s fall protection harness to the safety line have a specific orientation. It must be used in the correct vertical orientation so that it works properly. This project was my very first exposure with suspended scaffold work so I have learned a ton in a short period of time. I was honestly terrified of not properly absorbing the material and missing a key safety issue. However, I’m working on the project with two other seasoned site safety managers who are excellent teachers. I’m also learning about the entire concrete replacement process from cradle to grave. I’m looking forward to the exposure that I will get by working on other projects.
I believe that I have offered a decent overview of a suspended scaffold system. If you have any questions on the topic, go ahead and send them my way. Feel free to drop the question down in my comment section. If I do not readily know the answer, I will seek the answer from one of my experienced co-workers. I thank you for taking the time to click on and read or listen to my safety topic post today. You are appreciated since you owe me nothing. Hopefully, we learned something together on this topic. I’m always open to new blog topic suggestions so fire them away in my direction. Don’t forget to follow me at leslie_m_jasper on Tik Tok or Verbally Disastrous on YouTube. Share your feedback on my content down in the comment section at the bottom of the blog post. If you appreciate listening to podcasts, I encourage you to review my last (8) podcast episodes that are listed down below from The Verbally Disastrous Podcast, via links for Spotify & YouTube down below. If you are into reading on a Kindle, check out my newest short story release that belongs to my Construction Tales-Told By A Woman Kindle Vella Library short story series on Amazon down below. My last short story #11 is entitled, “Juggling Motherhood & Working With The Tools”. This short story covers my life as a widowed, single mother in the era when I juggled both motherhood and my career as a journeywoman electrician. The previous short story is #10 is entitled, “Early Life Lessons & Characters To Meet As An Apprentice”. If anyone has read any of my other previous short stories, let me know your thoughts? Feel free to go ahead and check out the many links for my book #ConstructionTales down below. If you are in a different time zone, resist the urge to pull a “nooner” and stick out the rest of your day whether it be your work/school/home tasks. I’m actually finishing up my business and intend to go home and chill out for the evening. I wish you a great morning/afternoon/evening on your side of the globe and a restful or productive day!
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I shared my latest short story that has been loaded up to my Construction Tales-Told By A Woman Kindle Vella Library on Amazon. This is short story #11 entitled, “Juggling Motherhood & Working With The Tools”. This short story covers my life as a widowed, single mother in the era when I juggled both motherhood and my career as a journeywoman electrician. I share the various challenges I faced and lessons learned along the way. The previous short story is entitled: #10: “Early Life Lessons & Characters To Meet As An Apprentice”. I decided to write about some life lessons such as guarding your personal information, managing nasty rumors, combating sexual harassment, gender discrimination, and racism. Overall, the construction culture has improved dramatically over the past 25-years. Developing both a thick skin and a sharp tongue are key tools needed to survive various jobsite antics. I hope you learn something from this short story. There are more to come. These short stories are now also available as Verbally Disastrous podcast episodes.
Construction Tales- Told By A Woman: (11) Kindle Vella Short Stories On Amazon!!
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Leslie M. Jasper
-Author And Host of the #VerballyDisastrous podcast now alive on many platforms that include: Acast, Amazon Music, Anchor, Apple Podcasts, Breaker, Castbox, Deezer, Google Podcasts, I Heart Radio, Listen Notes, Overcast, Pandora Podcasts, Player FM, Pocket Casts, Pod Bean, Podchaser, Podcast Addict, Podcast Gang, Radio Public, Reason, Soundcloud, Soundtrap, Spotify, Stitcher, Tune In, and YouTube.
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